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Photography 101: White Balance Explained

The term “white balance” comes from the world of video imaging where a device (waveform monitor) was used to match or “balance” the signals from the camera’s red, green, and blue channels for accurate whites under various lighting conditions. balancing your white. In this article, we’ll use “white balance” for digital cameras in a similar sense: the process of accurately measuring the color temperature of your light source, based on your lighting conditions, and using that information to strike the right balance white and colored.

Symptoms of poor white balance

If your camera’s white balance is set incorrectly, or if your camera has chosen the wrong color temperature measurement algorithm, then you will notice a color cast in your image: it will either look slightly blue, slightly orange, or slightly green. A low color temperature shifts the light toward the red. a high color temperature shifts the light toward the blue. Different light sources emit light at different color temperatures, and hence color. Let’s take a look.

What is color temperature and how is it measured?

Color temperature is essentially the heat emitted by a light source and the effect that temperature has on the intensity of any particular color in the visible spectrum. For example, a 200W bulb has more intensity on the orange/red end and shows purple and blue with very little intensity. This makes your photo look “warm”. Daylight has equivalent intensity across the spectrum, so you see purples and blues with the same intensity as oranges and reds. But shadow or very cloudy skies have more intensity on the blue/purple end, so oranges and reds will have very little intensity. This makes your photo look “cool”.

Here are some examples of color temperatures from common light sources:

1500 K: candle light

2800 K: 60 W lamp

3200 K: sunrise and sunset (will be affected by smog)

3400 K: tungsten lamp (ordinary household lamp)

4000-5000 K: cool white fluorescent lamps

5200 K: bright midday sun

5600K: electronic photo flash.

6500 K: very cloudy sky

10000-15000 K: deep blue clear sky

Newer light sources such as fluorescent and other artificial lighting require further white balance adjustments as they can make your photos look either green or magenta.

How does a digital camera automatically detect white balance?

Your camera looks for a reference point in your scene that represents white. It will then calculate all other colors based on this white point and the known color spectrum. The data measured by the RGB sensors is then run through several numbers and predefined equations to figure out which white balance setting is most likely to be correct. Remember, white balance is the automatic setting that ensures that the white color people see will also appear white in the image.

Setting your camera’s white balance to AWB will provide color accuracy under many conditions. Your camera will adjust the white balance between 4000K – 7000K using a best guess algorithm. Auto white balance is a good choice for situations where light changes over time and speed is an issue (eg animal photography, sports photography). However, you should avoid using automatic white balance settings in the following situations:

1) Your scene is heavily dominated by one color

2) Color accuracy is absolutely imperative

3) You photograph particularly warm or cool scenes (e.g. a sunset)

White balance defaults

Most digital cameras have many preset white balance options. These defaults work well when:

1) The light source matches one of the preset white balance options

2) Your scene is heavily dominated by one color

Let’s look at the most common preset options:

Tungsten – “Tungsten” is the name of the metal the bulb filament is made of. The color temperature of this setting is fixed at 3,000K. Best use: indoors at night. Otherwise, your exposure will be too blue. Creative use: Set exposure compensation to -1 or -2 and use this setting in daylight to simulate night.

Fluorescent – The color temperature of this setting is fixed at 4,200K. Best Use: Fluorescent, mercury, HMI and metal halide lights used in garages, sports fields and parking lots. Otherwise, your exposure will turn out to be too purple.

Daylight – The color temperature of this setting is fixed at 5,200 K. Best use: studio lights. Otherwise, your exposure may have a slight blue tint.

Cloudy – The color temperature of this setting is fixed at 6,000 K. Best used: direct sunlight and cloudy light. This setting will warm up your photo giving it an orange tint, which is often desired in landscapes and portraits. Creative use: sunsets.

Hue – The color temperature of this setting ranges from 7,000K – 8,000K. Best use: shooting in the shade, without direct sunlight (cloudy), backlit subjects. Otherwise, your exposure will be too orange. Creative use: direct sunlight – will warm up your photos even more!

Flash – The color temperature of this setting is fixed at 5,400K. This is almost identical to Cloudy but sometimes redder depending on the camera. Best use: cloudy sky. Otherwise, your exposure will become too red.

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