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A Comparison Between the Human and Ruminant Digestive System

HUMAN DIGESTION:

Food is taken into the mouth where it is chewed, mixed with saliva secreted by glands in the mouth. After chewing, a portion of food is collected on the tongue. It is then swallowed and the opening to the larynx is closed by a small flap of tissue called the epiglottis. This flap prevents food from entering the respiratory tract. Should any food be drawn into this tract, a regurgitation action occurs with coughing to expel the food.

As the food passes from the esophagus to the stomach, the contractions of the muscular wall of the stomach ensure further mixing and mechanical decomposition of the food, which simultaneously mixes with the gastric fluid secreted by the stomach.

The stomach has a mucous lining and is protected by gastric juice containing enzymes and hydrochloric acid. Food is broken down into smaller particles for easier absorption into the bloodstream, and the rest of the food passes into the small intestine and duodenum through the valve of the pyloric sphincter, a muscular ring at the end of the stomach and intestine.

In the small intestine, the rhythmic movements of the walls stir the food and mix it with the digestive juices, which include the juices of the pancreas and bile (bile is produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder), and then further digestion takes place as a result of the action of the enzymes present in these juices.

Absorption of digestive nutrients occurs mainly through the mucous membrane of the small intestine. Rhythmic bowel movements force unabsorbed food and waste products excreted from the blood into the large intestine, here water is absorbed from the intestinal walls and partially dehydrated material passes into the rectum from which it is expelled from the body through the anus as faeces .

THE NUTRITIONAL ANTIMETIC SYSTEM

The name ruminant means “Chewing the pith” and is a name given to those mammals with equal toes, bivalves, such as Cattle, Sheep, Goats are ruminants.

Other groups of ruminant-like animals include antelopes, deer, camels, llamas, hippos, sloths, and kangaroos.

The ruminant has a stomach consisting of four compartments (camels have three.)

ROMANIA:

The food is partially chewed and then swallowed and passes into the first compartment called the stomach. The large stomach has no digestive juices or excretory glands, and the food is attacked by large numbers of living protozoa, microbes, and bacteria already present in the walls of the ruminant stomach. The breakdown of cellulose, of which plants are largely composed, takes place in this part of the stomach, and the food is drawn from time to time into the mouth in small quantities and slowly chewed into a pulp, and when the food is re-swallowed, it enters a second partition called network.

THE NETWORK:

This part of the stomach further breaks down the cellulose and channels it into the third compartment called the omasum.

THE OMASUM:

The omasum contains large leaf-like structures that increase the surface area for efficient water absorption, there the muscles churn and further reduce it until it enters the fourth compartment, called the abomasum.

THE ABOMASUM:

‘True Stomach’ A stomach like ours. In this organ the gastric juice is secreted, it contains hydrochloric acid which kills most microbes and begins to digest them and their contents are then absorbed to provide essential vitamins, minerals and amino acids.

Ruminants have specialized metabolisms due to the presence of digestive bacteria. Protein needs are met by rumen bacteria that use simple substances urea and mineral sulfates to produce these proteins. This is an important difference between ruminants and other animals because they produce their own protein. Protein is a nutritional requirement of all other animals.

TEETH:

In most ruminants (Cattle, Sheep, Goats) there is an absence of upper incisors – they are replaced by a hard “Dental Cushion” well formed even lower incisors. Well developed molars and premolars for grinding movement are “Laterals”. The toothless space between the incisors and premolars allows the tongue to handle food. Chewing movements act as stimuli, leading to increased salivation, especially on the side where the chewing is done. In cattle, up to 200 liters can be produced in 24 hours. Saliva is rich in bicarbonates, which serve to neutralize the fatty acids produced by fermentation.

VARIOUS:

Ruminants

Specialized tongue and lips for gripping and tearing.

Well-developed molars and premolars for grinding, the movement is “lateral”.

In most ruminants the upper teeth are replaced by the “Dental Pad”.

A gap between the premolars and molars allows the tongue to handle food in small amounts before swallowing.

The mouth is transferred to the food.

Complex digestive system (Four stomachs).

Regression for quiet chewing, one set of teeth for life, teeth wear flat, with age.

Protein needs are provided by rumen bacteria.

Vegetarian – no meat.

Human’s:

The movement of the upper and lower teeth is “Vertical” The incisors and canine produce shearing action, used to cut food, premolars and molars for grinding and crushing.

Two sets of teeth – lost due to caries and improper diet – were replaced by dentures (Dentures).

Food is transferred to the mouth.

Digestive system (a stomach).

Protein is a nutritional requirement and is provided by the intake of various foods.

Vomiting more frequent in carnivores and omnivores. Forceful expulsion of gastric contents from the mouth.

Variety of foods to get various other nutrients.

Ill health, weather changes, irritability and stress can affect digestive processes.

Omnivores – meat and plants.

SIMILARITIES:

Food, water and oxygen to sustain life, we need similar nutrients and produce waste.

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