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Photosynthetic Nutrition For Health and Life

Living organisms are constantly undergoing chemical reactions that cause energy changes in their bodies. All these reactions and changes are called metabolism. Basically, metabolism consists of two processes, the synthesis or creation of complex body substances from simpler components and energy, and the decomposition or breakdown of these complex substances and energy. The first process is known as anabolism and the second as catabolism.

One of the main characteristics of living organisms is the ability to feed. This is referred to as nutrition. Therefore, nutrition is the process of obtaining energy and materials for cell metabolism, including cell maintenance and repair, and growth. In living organisms, nutrition is a complex series of anabolic and catabolic processes through which food taken into the body is converted into complex body substances (mainly for growth) and energy (for work). In animals, the food materials received are usually in the form of complex, insoluble compounds. These are broken down into simpler compounds, which can be absorbed into the cells. In plants, complex food materials are first synthesized by plant cells and then distributed to all parts of the plant body. Here, they are converted into simpler, soluble forms, which can be absorbed into the protoplasm of each cell. The raw materials necessary for the synthesis of these complex food materials are obtained from the air and soil in the plant’s environment.

All living organisms that cannot provide their own energy supply either by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis are known as heterotrophic or heterotrophic organisms. Heterostrophic means I feed on others. All animals are heterotrophic. Other organisms such as many species of bacteria, a few flowering plants and all fungi use this method of nutrition. The way in which heterotrophs obtain their food varies considerably. However, the way food is converted into a useful form within the body is very similar in most of them. But all green plants have the ability to produce carbohydrates from certain raw materials taken from the air and soil. This ability is important not only for plants themselves but also for animals, including humans, which depend directly or indirectly on plants for food.

Photosynthesis is the process by which plants produce their food through the use of energy from the sun and available raw materials. It is the production of carbohydrates in plants. It takes place only in the chlorophyll (ie green) cells of leaves and stems. These green cells contain chloroplasts, which are essential for food synthesis. All the raw materials required for photosynthesis, i.e. water and mineral salts from the soil, and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, must therefore be transported to the chlorophyll cells, which are more abundant in the leaves.

Tiny pores or stomata, usually found in greater numbers on the lower surfaces of most leaves, allow gases from the atmosphere to pass to the tissues inside. The stoma is an oval shaped epidermal cells known as guard cells. Each stoma is actually the opening of a hypostomatal air chamber. This is a large intercellular air space, which is adjacent to the stoma. It is continuous with other intercellular air spaces located within the leaf. The size of each stomach duct depends on the curvature of the guard cells that line it. When the guard cells are filled with water they swell or become cloudy and consequently the pore opens. However, when the water level is low, they become soft, or loose and collapse, causing the pores to close. When the stomata are open, air enters the hypostomatal chamber and diffuses throughout the intercellular air is dissolved in the water, which surrounds the cells. This carbon dioxide solution then diffuses into the cells of the leaf, particularly the palisade cells. Here, it is used by chloroplasts for photosynthesis.

Water carrying dissolved minerals such as phosphates, chlorides and bicarbonates of sodium, potassium, calcium iron and magnesium is absorbed from the soil by the roots. This soil water enters the root hairs by a process called osmosis, the movement of the water molecule from an area of ​​lower concentration to an area of ​​higher concentration through a semipermeable membrane. It is then transported upwards from the roots, through the stem to the leaves by the xylem tissue. It is transported to all cells, through the vein and their branches.

Chloroplasts contain the green pigment (chlorophyll) that gives plants their color and is capable of absorbing light energy from sunlight. This energy is used for one of the first essential steps in photosynthesis. that is, the splitting of the water molecule into oxygen and hydrogen. This oxygen is released into the atmosphere. Hydrogen components are also used to reduce carbon dioxide, in a series of enzymes and energy-consuming reactions, to form complex organic compounds such as sugars and starches.

During photosynthesis, high-energy compounds such as carbohydrates are synthesized from low-energy compounds such as carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll. As solar energy is necessary for photosynthesis, the process cannot occur at night due to the absence of sunlight. The end products of photosynthesis are carbohydrates and oxygen. The first is distributed to all parts of the plant. The latter is emitted as a gas through the stomata back into the atmosphere in exchange for the carbon dioxide taken up. The occurrence of photosynthesis in green leaves can be demonstrated by experiments showing the absorption of carbon dioxide, water and energy by the leaf and the production of oxygen and carbohydrates. Simple experiments can be set up to demonstrate the supply of oxygen by green plants, the formation of carbohydrates (ie, starch) in leaves, and the carbon dioxide, sunlight, and chlorophyll requirements for starch formation in green leaves.

Experiments in physiology involve placing biological materials such as plants and animals or parts of plants and animals under unusual conditions, e.g. jars, cages or boxes. If an experiment is designed to show the effects produced by the absence of carbon dioxide during the photosynthetic process, then the result obtained from such an experiment can be argued to be due in part to placing the biological material in unnatural experimental conditions . Therefore, it is necessary to create two almost identical experiments. One is placed under normal conditions (the control experiment) where all factors necessary for photosynthesis are present while the other (the test experiment) is placed in a situation where a single factor is eliminated or altered while all other factors are present. This enables the experimenter to be sure that the effect shown by his experimental experiment is due to the eliminated or varied factor and not to the experimental setup. Thus, the control experiment serves as a guide to ensure that the conclusion drawn from the test experiment is not wrong.

After some proper experiments, the observation clearly shows that oxygen is released only when photosynthesis occurs, i.e. during the day. Starch cannot be formed if sunlight is absent, although all the other essential factors such as water, carbon dioxide and chlorophyll can be present.

Photosynthesis, the basic component of nutrition, the unit of healthy living, played and plays an essential role in living organisms. The complex cellular structures of plants are created from the primary product of photosynthesis, i.e. a simple carbohydrate such as glucose. At this stage, it should be realized that although much emphasis has been placed on photosynthesis, the process of protein synthesis is just as important as the first. During protein synthesis, nitrogen compounds absorbed by plants, and in some cases phosphorus and other elements, combine with glucose to form the various plant proteins.

In addition to contributing to the synthesis of plant proteins, glucose is also important because it can be converted into fats and oils after a series of chemical reactions. It is also the primary product from which other organic compounds are formed.

The importance of photosynthesis in all food cycles cannot be overemphasized. Animals cannot use the sun’s energy to synthesize energy-rich compounds from simple readily available substances such as water and carbon dioxide found in the atmosphere around us, but the sun’s ultraviolet rays cause some in a living body. melanin and keratin affects the color and strength of animal skin and some internal damage. From the rays, therefore, it is fortunate that plants have the ability to use the energy provided by sunlight to synthesize and store energy-rich compounds on which all animal life ultimately depends.

For his survival, man not only eats plant products such as fruits, vegetables and grains, but also animals such as cattle and fish. Cattle and other herbivores depend entirely on plant life for their existence. While some fish are herbivores, others have a mixed diet and a large number are entirely carnivorous. Carnivorous animals indirectly depend on plants to live. Their immediate diet consists of smaller animals which themselves must feed, if not entirely, then in part, on plants. Photosynthesis is the first step in all food cycles.

During the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere and oxygen is added to it. If this cleansing process did not exist in nature, the atmosphere would soon become saturated with the carbon dioxide emitted by the respiration of animals and plants and the decay of organic matter, so that all life would gradually cease. Without photosynthesis, there will be no nutrition. And if there is no sustenance, a living being will not exist. And if there are no living beings on the earth, the earth will still be formless and completely empty. There will be no work for living things if photosynthesis is not compromised. I wonder what will be the fate of living things today or someday when photosynthesis stops.

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