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Biological Divinity

Deities in religion and myth live as the only beings who can sustain eternal life. For the rest of existence, death is considered inevitable. Although avoidable external forces account for the majority of deaths, aging remains the only killer that is considered inevitable. Aging brings some positive changes, such as increased strength and mobility. Other changes, however, negatively affect physical and mental capacity. What if scientists could discover the secret to controlling the aging process? With increased research into specific, unusual organisms, this strange fantasy may become a reality.

Some life forms have the ability to escape aging and fight death through biological processes. Hydra, an incredibly simple multicellular organism, provides an example of such a life form. Despite its small size, less than half an inch long, the hydra’s strange power of tissue regeneration may prove useful to humans. “Hydra is in a stable, stable state, and from it you can learn the basic biological principles of higher animals,” said Richard Campbell, professor and researcher of developmental and cell biology at the University of California, Irvine.

The budding process, which takes the place of mating in these organisms, may enable the Hydra, a simple polyp, to achieve immortality. With hatching, a type of asexual reproduction, the offspring develops from a part of the parent. Thus, the Hydra earned its appropriate name from the “Lernaean Hydra” of Greek Mythology, a multi-headed creature capable of replacing a lost head with three more in its place.

Similar to the Lernaean Hydra, the Hydra does not die easily due to its regenerative ability. This process makes it similar to another organism that can avoid aging: the planarian flatworm. Both organisms can regenerate large amounts of tissue from a relatively small portion of the original organism.

The fact that stem cells become unable to proliferate or proliferate with age causes negative effects of aging in humans. A Hydra’s stem cells, however, remain permanently active during the germination process, allowing it to avoid aging altogether. Research from the University of Kiel has shown that the FoxO gene allows a hydra’s stem cells to remain active throughout its life. “Curiously, our search for the gene that makes the hydra immortal led us to the so-called FoxO gene,” said Anna-Marei Böhm, PhD student at Kiel University.

Interestingly, the FoxO gene also causes aging in humans. “Our research team has shown for the first time that there is a direct link between the FoxO gene and aging,” said Thomas Bosch from the University of Kiel. Because humans and Hydra share the same gene responsible for aging, Hydra could become critical for future study of human anti-aging processes.

Surprisingly, organisms other than the Hydra and the flatworm possess immortal abilities. A tiny organism classified as extreme friendly can accomplish more than just escaping death by aging. Commonly referred to as a “water bear” or “moss pig”, the late bloomer has the ability to survive extreme conditions, such as intense heat that exceeds the boiling point of water at temperatures just above absolute zero. In addition to bitter temperatures, the tarantula can survive pressures stronger than those in the deepest ocean trenches and can live 10 years without food or water. Additionally, in 2007 the late organism became the first organism to survive the vacuum of space.

How can the retard persist under these conditions? Whenever an argon comes into contact with these extreme conditions, it goes into a state of dormancy called cryptobiosis. In the study of biology, there are several different types of cryptobiotic responses. These types include anhydrobiosis, a response to water scarcity. anoxybiosis, a response to lack of oxygen. chemosis, a response to nearby harmful toxins; cryobiosis, response to low temperatures. and osmosis, a response to a high amount of solute in a solution in which an organism lives.

The strange nature of late allows it to undergo every known type of cryptobiosis! When subjected to cryptobiosis, the tarantula does not appear to age and can rehydrate at any time and continue to roam the earth in virtually any available habitat. Compared to the Hydra, slows have more in common with humans. In How To Find Tardigrades, Michael Shaw said, “… they look like us in some ways. They have a mouth, a digestive system, and they eat food and excrete it like we do.”

Apparently, the techniques used by potentially immortal organisms work differently. The research of different organisms, therefore, can become useful to the human race in many ways. For example, Hydra research could allow scientists to modify the FoxO gene to stop the negative effects of aging altogether. Slowing down research, however, would likely help develop ways to preserve living tissue for extended periods of time.

Turritopsis dohrnii, nicknamed the “immortal jellyfish”, has the ability to defeat aging in a strange way. It can essentially transform from an “adult” to a juvenile jellyfish when necessary. One could describe its aging process as the opposite of that of humans, which may prove useful in helping humans maintain self-sufficiency throughout their lives. “Increasing human longevity does not make sense, it is ecological nonsense. What we can expect and work on is to improve the quality of life in our last stages,” said Stefano Piraino from the University of Salento.

Another organism, the lobster, has a relatively delayed aging cycle similar to that of the immortal jellyfish. Immortality in lobsters may seem unlikely, but lobsters actually become more functional with age. They grow larger by molting and become more fertile, but do not return to a youthful state like immortal jellyfish. “These species naturally still die. They get diseased, injured or hunted. But unlike humans, they don’t die as a result of their own metabolism – there doesn’t seem to be a life expectancy built into the cells,” said biologist Simon Watt.

Biological immortality also defines cells that the “Hayflick limit” does not affect. The Hayflick limit indicates the amount of cell division that will occur until cells can no longer divide. HeLa cells, cancer cells of the late Henrietta Lacks, represent a famous example of cells described as biologically immortal. This example of immortality could reveal new ways to make cells divide continuously for life, similar to the cells of a Hydra.

Immortality may seem like a divine force too powerful for life on earth. As it turns out, evolution has created several organisms that can carefully achieve immortality. With intensive research into these organisms, the ability to prevent the debilitating effects of aging while exacerbating its positive effects may become possible in the not-too-distant future.

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